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Title Page and Contents

Chapter I
Before the Restoration

  Parts: 1   2   3   4   5   6   7

asterix The benevolent spirit of the Christian morality is undoubtedly adverse to distinctions of caste. But to the Church of Rome such distinctions are peculiarly odious; for they are incompatible with other distinctions which are essential to her system. (ch. 1:2)

asterix The line which bounded the royal prerogative, though in general sufficiently clear, had not everywhere been drawn with accuracy and distinctness. (ch. 1:2)

asterix It is difficult for an Englishman of the nineteenth century to imagine the facility and rapidity with which, four hundred years ago, the check of physical force against tyranny was applied. The people have long unlearned the use of arms. (ch. 1:2)

asterix The struggle between the Roman Catholic religion and the Reformation in our country was long, and the event sometimes seemed doubtful. There were two extreme parties, prepared to act with violence or to suffer with stubborn resolution. (ch. 1:3)

asterix It seemed monstrous that a woman should be the chief bishop. (ch. 1:3)

asterix The spirit of Protestantism was far fiercer and more intolerant after the cruelties of Mary than before them. (ch. 1:3)

asterix It was in the Parliament of 1601 that the opposition which had, during forty years, been silently gathering and husbanding strength, fought its first great battle and won its first victory. (ch. 1:3)

asterix It was gravely maintained that the Supreme Being regarded hereditary monarchy, as opposed to other forms of government, with peculiar favour. (ch. 1:4)

asterix It was hinted that, if the established worship had any fault, that fault was extreme simplicity. (ch. 1:4)

asterix After the fashion of oppressed sects, the separatists mistook their own vindictive feelings for emotions of piety. (ch. 1:4)

asterix The opponents of the government began to despair of the destiny of their country; and many looked to the American wilderness as the only asylum in which they could enjoy civil and spiritual freedom. (ch. 1:5)

asterix When, in October, 1641, the Parliament reassembled, two hostile parties appeared confronting each other. (ch. 1:5)

asterix The great majority of the nation was firmly attached to hereditary monarchy. Those who held republican opinions were as yet few, and did not venture to speak out. (ch. 1:5)

asterix In August 1642 the sword was at length drawn. (ch. 1:6)

asterix Cromwell saw it was necessary to look for recruits of decent station and grave character, fearing God and zealous for public liberty. (ch. 1:6)

asterix The army which now became supreme was an army very different from any that has since been seen among us. (ch. 1:6)

asterix A revolutionary tribunal pronounced Charles a tyrant, a traitor, a murderer, and a public enemy; and his head was severed from his shoulders, before thousands of spectators, in front of the banqueting hall of his own palace. (ch. 1:6)

asterix The object of the warlike saints who surrounded Cromwell was the settlement of a free and pious commonwealth. For that end they were ready to employ, without scruple, any means, however violent and lawless. (ch. 1:7)

asterix Under no English government since the Reformation, had there been so little religious persecution. Even the Jews were, in spite of the strong opposition of jealous traders and fanatical theologians, permitted to build a synagogue in London. (ch. 1:7)

asterix Oliver was succeeded by his son Richard as quietly as any King had ever been succeeded by any Prince of Wales. (ch. 1:7)

asterix The officers who had the principal influence among the troops stationed near London were not Richard's friends. Some of them were honest, but fanatical. Others were impatient to be what Oliver had been. (ch. 1:7)

asterix There appears to have been less fanaticism among the troops stationed in Scotland than in any other part of the army; and their general, George Monk, was himself the very opposite of a zealot. (ch. 1:7)

asterix At length Monk broke silence, and declared for a free Parliament. (ch. 1:7)

asterix The new Parliament is more accurately described as a Convention. Both Houses instantly invited the King to return to his country. (ch. 1:7)

Chapter II
Under Charles the Second

  Parts: 1   2   3   4   5   6

asterix The military tyranny had passed away; but it left deep and enduring traces. (ch. 2:1)

asterix The political feud was, as usual, exasperated by a religious feud. (ch. 2:1)

asterix The Puritans had undoubtedly, in the day of their power, given cruel provocation. They ought to have learned, if from nothing else, yet from their own discontents, that it was not in the power of the civil magistrate to drill the minds of men into conformity. (ch. 2:1)

asterix At the time of the Restoration the Quakers were popularly regarded as the most despicable of fanatics. (ch. 2:1)

asterix As a man eminently well bred, and keenly sensible of the ridiculous, Charles the Second was moved to contemptuous mirth by the Puritan oddities. He had indeed some reason to dislike the rigid sect. (ch. 2:1)

asterix Episcopal ordination was now, for the first time, made an indispensable qualification for church preferment. About two thousand ministers of religion, whose conscience did not suffer them to conform, were driven from their benefices. (ch. 2:1)

asterix It was made a crime to attend a dissenting place of worship. A single justice of the peace might convict without a jury, and might, for the third offence, pass sentence of transportation beyond sea for seven years. (ch. 2:2)

asterix Men flew to frivolous amusements and to criminal pleasures with the greediness which long and enforced abstinence naturally produces. (ch. 2:2)

asterix A vague suspicion that the King and the Duke were not sincere Protestants sprang up and gathered strength. (ch. 2:2)

asterix Secret Treaty of Dover - Charles bound himself to make public profession of the Roman Catholic religion, to join his arms to those of Lewis for the purpose of destroying the power of the United Provinces, and to employ the whole strength of England in support of the rights of the House of Bourbon to the vast monarchy of Spain. (ch. 2:3)

asterix The Cabal. (ch. 2:3)

asterix Against the Declaration of Indulgence, all the enemies of religious freedom, and all the friends of civil freedom, found themselves on the same side; and these two classes made up nineteen twentieths of the nation. (ch. 2:4)

asterix The general impression was that a great blow was about to be aimed at the Protestant religion. (ch. 2:4)

asterix Habeas Corpus Act. (ch. 2:5)

asterix Protestants set up the Duke of Monmouth as a claimant of the crown. (ch. 2:5)

asterix Exclusion Bill - to block a Catholic from the throne - passes the Commons, rejected by the Lords. (ch. 2:5)

asterix Whig conspiracies - to overthrow Charles the Second and his brother, James II. (ch. 2:6)

Chapter III
State of England in 1685

  Parts: 1   2   3   4   5   6   7

asterix The country gentleman - His animosities were numerous and bitter. He hated Frenchmen and Italians, Scotchmen and Irishmen, Papists and Presbyterians, Independents and Baptists, Quakers and Jews. (ch. 3:2)

asterix The rural clergy were even more vehement in Toryism than the rural gentry, and were a class scarcely less important. (ch. 3:3)

asterix It would be hard to find, in the comedy of the seventeenth century, a single instance of a clergyman who wins a spouse above the rank of cook. (ch. 3:3)

asterix Among those divines who were the boast of the Universities and the delight of the capital were those who lived on friendly terms with Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists. But such latitudinarianism was held in horror by the country parson. (ch. 3:3)

asterix In Bristol, luxury was supported by a thriving trade with the North American plantations and with the West Indies. (ch. 3:3)

asterix In the streets of London, the Muns and Tityre Tus had given place to the Hectors, and the Hectors had been recently succeeded by the Scourers. At a later period arose the Nicker, the Hawcubite, and the yet more dreaded name of Mohawk. (ch. 3:4)

asterix The coffee house must not be dismissed with a cursory mention. (ch. 3:5)

asterix It was still usual for men who enjoyed health and vigour, and who were not encumbered by much baggage, to perform long journeys on horseback. If the traveller wished to move expeditiously he rode post. (ch. 3:5)

asterix In the capital the coffee houses supplied in some measure the place of a journal. But people who lived at a distance from the great theatre of political contention could be kept regularly informed of what was passing there only by means of newsletters. (ch. 3:6)

asterix English women of that generation were decidedly worse educated than they have been at any other time since the revival of learning. (ch. 3:6)

asterix The war between wit and Puritanism soon became a war between wit and morality. The hostility excited by a grotesque caricature of virtue did not spare virtue herself. (ch. 3:6)

asterix Nothing is more characteristic of the times than the care with which the poets contrived to put all their loosest verses into the mouths of women. (ch. 3:6)

asterix While factions were struggling for dominion over each other, a small body of sages had turned away from the conflict, and had devoted themselves to the nobler work of extending the dominion of man over matter. (ch. 3:7)

asterix We have, in the course of ages, become, not only a wiser, but also a kinder people. (ch. 3:7)

asterix We too shall, in our turn, be outstripped, and in our turn be envied. (ch. 3:7)

Chapter IV
James the Second

  Parts: 1   2   3   4

asterix His face grew black; his eyes turned in his head; Charles uttered a cry, staggered, and fell into the arms of one of his lords. (ch. 4:1)

asterix Charles had never been a sincere member of the Established Church. His mind had long oscillated between Hobbism and Popery. When his health was good and his spirits high he was a scoffer. In his few serious moments he was a Roman Catholic. (ch. 4:1)

asterix "We have now for our Church," cried one loyal preacher, "the word of a King, and of a King who was never worse than his word." (ch. 4:1)

asterix No election had ever taken place under circumstances so favourable to the Court. Hundreds of thousands whom the Popish plot had scared into Whiggism had been scared back by the Rye House plot into Toryism. (ch. 4:2)

asterix Oates and Dangerfield were still within the reach of the stern prince whom they had wronged. (ch. 4:3)

asterix "Pollexfen, I know you well. I will set a mark on you. You are the patron of the faction. This is an old rogue, a schismatical knave, a hypocritical villain." (ch. 4:3)

asterix In Scotland, it was enacted that whoever should preach in a conventicle under a roof, or should attend, either as preacher or as hearer, a conventicle in the open air, should be punished with death and confiscation of property. (ch. 4:3)

asterix "Dear Margaret, only say, God save the King!" The poor girl, true to her stern theology, gasped out, "May God save him, if it be God's will!" (ch. 4:3)

asterix The two extreme sects - Quakers and Roman Catholics - precisely because they were extreme sects, had a common interest distinct from the interest of the intermediate sects. (ch. 4:4)

asterix The Quakers had a powerful and zealous advocate at court. This was the celebrated William Penn. (ch. 4:4)

asterix Penn strongly represented the sufferings of his brethren to the new King. (ch. 4:4)

asterix It was matter of vulgar notoriety, that the Test Act, the rampart of religion, and the Habeas Corpus Act, the rampart of liberty, were marked out for destruction. (ch. 4:4)

asterix The Whigs would doubtless have wished to see the Protestant dissenters tolerated, and the Roman Catholics alone persecuted. But the Whigs were a small and a disheartened minority. (ch. 4:4)

Chapter V
The Monmouth Rebellion

  Parts: 1   2   3   4   5   6
asterix A politician driven into banishment by a hostile faction generally sees the society which he has quitted through a false medium. Every object is distorted and discoloured by his regrets, his longings, and his resentments. (ch. 5:1)

asterix The unexpected demise of the crown changed the whole aspect of affairs. Any hope which the proscribed Whigs might have cherished of returning peaceably to their native land was extinguished by the death of a careless and goodnatured prince. (ch. 5:1)

asterix It was determined that an attempt should be forthwith made on the western coast of Scotland, and that it should be promptly followed by a descent on England. (ch. 5:1)

asterix It was speedily known at Edinburgh that the rebel squadron had touched at the Orkneys. Troops were instantly put in motion. (ch. 5:2)

asterix The army had become a mob; and the mob melted fast away. (ch. 5:2)

asterix Surrounded by factious and cowardly associates, Rumbold had, through the whole campaign, behaved himself like a soldier trained in the school of the great Protector. (ch. 5:2)

asterix The gentry and clergy of that part of England were, with few exceptions, Tories. But the yeomen, the traders of the towns, the peasants, and the artisans were generally animated by the old Roundhead spirit. (ch. 5:3)

asterix That Monmouth was legitimate, nay, that he thought himself legitimate, intelligent men could not believe. He was therefore not merely an usurper, but an impostor. (ch. 5:3)

asterix Magistrates and clergy were everywhere active; the Dissenters were everywhere closely observed. (ch. 5:4)

asterix In his misery Monmouth complained bitterly of the evil counsellors who had induced him to quit his happy retreat in Brabant. Against Wildman in particular he broke forth into violent imprecations. (ch. 5:4)

asterix "For whom are you?" called out an officer of the Foot Guards. "For the King," replied a voice from the ranks of the rebel cavalry. "For which King?" was then demanded. The answer was a shout, "King Monmouth," mingled with a war cry. (ch. 5:4)

asterix The next day a long line of gibbets appeared on the road leading from Bridgewater. (ch. 5:4)

asterix Ships bound for New England were crowded with so many fugitives from Sedgemoor that there was great danger lest the water and provisions should fail. (ch. 5:5)

asterix Early in September, Jeffreys, accompanied by four other judges, set out on that circuit of which the memory will last as long as our race and language - Bloody Assizes. (ch. 5:5)

asterix At every spot where two roads met, on every marketplace, on the green of every large village which had furnished Monmouth with soldiers, ironed corpses clattering in the wind, or heads and quarters stuck on poles, poisoned the air, and made the traveller sick with horror. (ch. 5:6)

asterix Abraham Holmes, a retired officer of the parliamentary army, and one of those zealots who would own no king but King Jesus, would make no submission. "I am an aged man," he said, "and what remains to me of life is not worth a falsehood or a baseness. I have always been a republican; and I am so still." (ch. 5:6)

asterix "You are a rebel; and all your family have been rebels since Adam. They tell me that you are a poet. I'll cap verses with you." (ch. 5:6)

asterix "Mr. Penne,
    "Her Majesty's Maids of Honour having acquainted me that they design to employ you and Mr. Walden in making a composition with the Relations of the Maids of Taunton for the high Misdemeanour they have been guilty of..." (ch. 5:6)

asterix Dissenting ministers, however blameless in life, however eminent for learning and abilities, could not venture to walk the streets for fear of outrages, which were not only not repressed, but encouraged, by those whose duty it was to preserve the peace. (ch. 5:6)

Comparative History

"Reformation and Restoration," from England: a Narrative History, by Peter N. Williams